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March 6, 2015 at 9:52 pm

Wasn’t there discussion about using the first bomb on a Japanese naval base on one of the Pacific islands?

March 7, 2015 at 11:01 am

In 1943 and 1944, there was discussion about possibly using it against Truk/Chuuk lagoon, a Japanese naval base. By 1945 however Truk had been neutralized as an important target.

March 6, 2015 at 10:00 pm

Also in the Franck report is this sentence: “After such a demonstration the weapon could be used against Japan if a sanction of the United Nations (and of the public opinion at home) could be obtained, perhaps after a preliminary ultimatum to Japan to surrender or at least to evacuate a certain region as an alternative to the total destruction of this target.”

Since Japan was not scheduled to be invaded until November 1, 1945, there was a three-month period during which domestic and international opinion could be queried on whether and how to drop the bomb. Demonstrating the bomb and then opening the matter up for public discussion would have been the better procedure.

Also of interest is the proposed option for Japan “to evacuate a certain region as an alternative to the total destruction of this target.” Read literally, one can see the germ of an idea to accept evacuations as a substitute for nuclear bombing. This suggestion is not further explained or described in the Franck report.

My strong suspicion is that the evacuation idea came from Leo Szilard, one of three authors who wrote the report (3 wrote, 7 signed). Szilard later advocated the idea to give a city two or four weeks warning, so evacuations could take place, and then bombing the city. Szilard’s later development of his idea modifies the idea significantly, since evacuations would be merely a prelude to bombing, not a substitute for bombing.

Both versions of the idea would save lives, and so have moral and humanitarian value. Accepting evacuations as a substitute for bombings is the superior version, because it also saves property, and leaves intact a place for people to return to after a cease-fire is agreed to. A nuclear war need not kill anyone at all, if nuclear-armed nations are prepared to accept evacuation orders as a substitute for nuclear bombings.

March 7, 2015 at 11:57 am

I wonder how much of the decision-making process was driven by all attempts to keep the bomb’s nature from Russia. At Potsdam Truman was almost gleeful that he could dangle the promise of a war-ending weapon in front of Stalin. Of course Uncle Joe played coy- he already knew. But irrational fear of the Soviet Union and its system, which led to decades of poor US policy decisions, had to be considered by the “men in the room” when deciding on a demonstration. Perhaps they were more concerned about firing a dud in front of the Russians than they were about firing a dud in front of the Japanese. And perhaps they reasoned that a city of charred bodies and flattened buildings caused by one bomb would send a stronger message to Moscow than to Tokyo.

PipelineDB’s fundamental abstraction is called a continuous view. A continuous view is much like a regular view, except that it selects from a combination of streams and tables as its inputs and is incrementally updated in realtime as new data is written to those inputs.

As soon as a stream row has been read by the continuous views that must read it, it is discarded. It is not stored anywhere. The only data that is persisted for a continuous view is whatever is returned by running a SELECT * FROM that_view . Thus you can think of a continuous view as a very high-throughput, realtime materialized view.


Here’s the syntax for creating a continuous view:

where query is a subset of a PostgreSQL SELECT statement:


This section references streams, which are similar to tables and are what continuous views read from in their clause. They’re explained in more depth in the Streams section, but you can think of them as append-only tables for now.


A PostgreSQL expression


An optional identifier to name an expression with


Any expression that evaluates to a result of type . Any row that does not satisfy this condition will be eliminated from the output. A row satisfies the condition if it returns when the actual row values are substituted for any variable references.


A name that can be referenced from clauses or subsequent window definitions.



PipelineDB’s window_definitions do not support an clause if the input rows come from a stream. In such cases, the stream row’s field is implictly used as the clause.


Defines the window frame for window functions that depend on the frame (not all do). The window frame is a set of related rows for each row of the query (called the current row). The frame_clause can be one of

frame_start , frame_end

frame_start frame_end

Each can be one of the following:

An integral value


This has mainly covered only the syntax for . To learn more about the semantics of each of these query elements, you should consult the Skechers USA Mens Vengar Oxford Black MQqzSVi

To DROP a continuous view from the system, use the DROP CONTINUOUS VIEW command. Its syntax is simple:


The Beijing Platform for ActionTurns 20

Our champions are women and men who have made gender equality and women's empowerment their cause and mission in life. Hear from them on why they have made women's rights their top priority and what you can do to join them!

Photo: Maurice Giles

Mikey Mercer , successful soca music artist from Barbados and a champion for the UN Secretary-General’s UNiTE campaign has produced hit after hit for the past 10 years. He is a two-time winner of the Tune of the Crop award from the National Cultural Foundation of Barbados, and has also created the Team Mikey Charity, which includes a focus on ending violence against women. One of Mikey’s songs reached the finals in Trinidad and Tobago’s International Soca Monarch Finals in 2012, a soca competition, and he plans to continue his outreach through music on a global level.

Photo: Courtesy of Edith Lederer

Chief Correspondent at the United Nations for the Associated Press (AP) and an icon in the field of journalism, Edith Lederer of the U.S. has had a long tryst with issues of gender equality and led the AP team at the historic Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. She was also one of the first female war reporters at a time when it was still fairly rare for women to be covering the news from the battle front, and the first woman to head a foreign AP bureau, in charge of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. With a long list of accolades, including the prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award from International Women's Media Foundation, she has reported for the AP for nearly five decades.

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Photo: David Campbell Morrison

Award-winning journalist, broadcaster and TV personality, Funmi Iyanda hosts “Talk with Funmi,” a show that traverses her native country of Nigeria talking to people across society about the issues that matter most to them. Popular throughout the country, she was named one of 2015’s 20 Youngest Power African Women by Forbes magazine, and also as one of the World Economic Forum’s Young Global Leaders. She has made it her mission to encourage women to be vocal across all spheres of life, including in the 2015 elections. From being the Tutu Fellow at the prestigious African Leadership Institute to a fellowship at the ASPEN Institute’s African Leadership Initiative, her tireless work has generated many honours.

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Debi Nova, famous Costa Rican singer and songwriter, is a Youth Champion for the UN Secretary-General’s UNiTE campaign to end violence against women and a passionate supporter of education for women and girls. Six of the projects she has been involved in have been nominated for Grammy awards. She was named ambassador of the Youth and United Nations Global Alliance, and lent her powerful voice for UN Women’s One Woman song. Recently, she was also invited to participate in the TEDx Youth Pure Life conference where she urged young people to work towards their dreams.

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Photo: NASA

Space exploration was always a dream in the making for Dr. Roberta Bondar. She became the first Canadian woman and the first neurologist to enter space in 1992, and holds the prestigious NASA space medal for her achievements. For more than a decade at NASA, Bondar headed an international space medicine research team. A published author, photographer and outspoken advocate of higher learning for girls, she started the Roberta Bondar Foundation in 2009, which creates educational programmes for children to learn about the sciences, technology and the environment in Kenya and Canada through leadership and technical training.

Known for weaving traditional music with modern pop, singer-songwriter Umuhire Solange Liza recently won a song-writing contest organized by Kigali’s Safe City Programme, energizing the global movement promoting the prevention of sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls in public spaces. Liza is well-known for her work which promotes social mobilization on issues of violence and discrimination. Chasing her dream of using music to prompt behavior change, she co-founded the Kaami organization to deliver arts training for disadvantaged children and survivors of abuse.

Mariana Monteiro has been an actress since the age of 16. Even as a youngster she dreamt of reaching the hearts and minds of people and advocating for the causes that mattered most to her. As the main female lead in dozens of television shows and the former presenter of the famous "The Voice Portugal" and "The Voice Kids Portugal", she has achieved much fame for her talents and her effervescent personality. A passionate supporter of women’s rights, she participated in the well-known television series " focusing on the ever changing role of women since the 1920s.

Ghada Saba chartered a new course in Jordan’s media space as a woman filmmaker, building the reputation of masterfully addressing social problems in her films. With a body of work that stretches to over 250 documentaries and short films, she focuses on the importance of human rights. Saba is also known for her series of documentaries with Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah`s office featuring everyday heroes. Currently, she is producing a weekly TV report highlighting the success of empowered women within their local communities.

Kek Galabru , a Cambodian doctor recently named as a Human Rights Defender by the US-based Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), played a key role in opening challenging negotiations between Prince Sihanouk of the opposition coalition in exile which included the party of Son Sann, the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) and the Khmer Rouge, and Hun Sen, from the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). A strong defender of her belief in human rights, Galabru founded the Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO), and was also recently suggested as a neutral member of the National Election Committee.

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Salif Keita, a Malian musician known for his eclectic sounds of traditional African instruments with dance music, has shaped the multi-genre music scene as a solo artist since 1987. Creating pieces of work that evoke emotional memories as well as social messages have earned him international recognition and praise as he raises difficult questions about humanity and the nature of discrimination. His 2009 album, , won Keita the Best World Music award in 2010 at the , the French Ministry of Culture awards. Salif Keita endorses the Bugatchi Mens Lombari SlipOn Loafer Navy 7dBTOlzC
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Midori has been playing the violin since she was two years old after her mother heard her humming a piece of music she had heard just days before. Invited to tour Asia with the New York Philharmonic at the young age of ten, Midori is an internationally renowned soloist musician, winning the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize for excellence in music, and is an official UN Messenger of Peace. Balancing her dual roles as a soloist musician and her responsibilities as the Chair of the Strings Department at University of Southern California's Thornton School of Music, she is also a powerful advocate to end violence against women.

Governor Sergio Fajardo is the governor of Antioquia, Colombia and a #HeforShe . A mathematician turned politician, Fajardo believes that gender equality starts with an understanding of human dignity and human rights, which together provide a blueprint for freedom. To create a free, just and equal society, he calls for the full education of all girls.

3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word "the", being interlined between the seventh and eight Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page. The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirtysecond and thirtythird Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the fortythird and fortyfourth Lines of the second Page.

. Monday September 17th 1787. Present The States of

NewHampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr.Hamilton from NewYork, NewJersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, NorthCarolina, SouthCarolina and Georgia.

Resolved , That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution. That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

. Monday September 17th 1787.

SIR: We have now the honor to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable. The friends of our country have long seen and desired that the power of making war, peace, and treaties, that of levying money, and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in the General Government of the Union; but the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident: hence results the necessity of a different organization. It is obviously impracticable in the Federal Government of these States to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all. Individuals entering into society must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be preserved; and, on the present occasion, this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several States as to their situation, extent, habits, and particular interests. In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety—perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each State in the Convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude than might have been otherwise expected; and thus, the Constitution which we now present is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession, which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable. That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every State is not, perhaps, to be expected; but each will, doubtless, consider, that had her interest alone been consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that Country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be, SIR , your excellency's most obedient and humble servants: GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. By the unanimous order of the convention. His Excellencythe President of Congress.

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