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If city bombing ever has a second act, we are all toast.

The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings were militarily and politically irrelevant. They were always going to be “demonstrations,” with the nascent nuclear weapons industry as the prime beneficiary. The only question was who would be under the bombs when they were demonstrated. The answer, of course, was the Japanese cities that had been deliberately spared in order to play that role.

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What I find interesting, though, is that it is not clear that Stimson really in his gut accepted non-precision city bombing. Which is a separate issue, but I like to bring it up whenever it is asserted that everyone had accepted the morality of strategic bombing — Stimson himself warned Truman that the US could “get the reputation of outdoing Hitler in atrocities” if it kept up a strategy like it did at Tokyo.

As for them being military “demonstrations,” I agree. And this is the terms in which they targeting planners talked about them : “It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance. Two aspects of this are (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released.”

March 6, 2015 at 2:41 pm

Without doing too much research, I can’t find an example of a new weapon that was demonstrated first, prior to actual use. Poison gas, aerial bombardment, rocket weapons, jet planes, etc., all of these were introduced into warfare without much consideration of a demonstration.

And as you mention, would it have done any good? I don’t think so. Even if the Germans had first killed a thousand farm animals in an open field with chlorine, the British and French would not have agreed to a cease-fire.

March 6, 2015 at 3:30 pm

“How could that not look like pure blackmail, pure terrorism?”

But isn’t that a part of how war works? You pound the enemy and then ask for unconditional surrender while promising to continue the destruction if the answer is no. I really believe that coercion, or blackmail, is a fundamental part of war.

I have met many people who think the problem is that the lack of a demonstration is equivalent to a sneak attack without a declaration of war; like the attack on Port Arthur prior to the receipt of a declaration or the attack on Pearl Harbor prior to a receipt of a declaration…those darn Japanese, they are really good at that! It always leads to righteous indignation and venomous hate. That is how the people I have encountered who feel strongly that even if a demonstration did not work should have still been tried.

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Teams are deploying code faster than ever, thanks to continuous delivery practices and tools like Bitbucket Pipelines.But this has caused a huge problem: it’s hard keeping up with all the deployments and knowing where things are at.

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The Nuclear Secrecy Blog
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To demonstrate, or not to demonstrate?

As the atomic bomb was becoming a technological reality, there were many scientists on the Manhattan Projectwho found themselves wondering about both the ethics and politics of a surprise, unwarned nuclear attack on a city. Many of them, even at very high levels, wondered about whether the very threat of the bomb, properly displayed, might be enough, without the loss of life that would come with a military attack.

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, written in June 1945 by scientists working at the University of Chicago Metallurgical laboratory, put it perhaps most eloquently:

the way in which nuclear weapons, now secretly developed in this country, will first be revealed to the world appears of great, perhaps fateful importance. …It will be very difficult to persuade the world that a nation which was capable of secretly preparing and suddenly releasing a weapon, as indiscriminate as the rocket bomb and a thousand times more destructive, is to be trusted in its proclaimed desire of having such weapons abolished by international agreement….

From this point of view a demonstration of the new weapon may best be made before the eyes of representatives of all United Nations, on the desert or a barren island. The best possible atmosphere for the achievement of an international agreement could be achieved if America would be able to say to the world, “You see what weapon we had but did not use. We are ready to renounce its use in the future and to join other nations in working out adequate supervision of the use of this nuclear weapon.”

They even went so far as to suggest, in a line that was Onitsuka Tiger Mexico 66 Fashion Sneaker Red Mesh/Red/White nYwVlLk
totally etched out of thehistorical record by the Manhattan Project censors, that “We fear its early unannounced use might cause other nations to regard us as a nascent Germany.”

The evolution of the “Trinity” test fireball, at constant scale, with the Empire State Building for additional scale reference.

The idea of a “demonstration” was for many scientists a compelling one, and news of the ideaspread to the various project sites. The idea would be to let the Japanese know what awaited them if they did not surrender. This would be more than just a verbal or textual warning, which could be disregarded as propaganda — they would set the bomb off somewhere where casualties would be low or minimal, but its nature easy to verify. If the demonstration did not work, if the Japanese were not receptive, then the bomb could be used as before. In the eyes of these scientists, there would be no serious loss to do it this way, and perhaps much to gain.

Of course, not all scientists saw it this way. In his DailyShoes Womens Military Lace Up Buckle Combat Boots Mid Knee High Exclusive Credit Card Pocket Dark Brown Grey Blue Skies HhmkA
forwarding the Franck Report to the Secretary of War, the physicist Arthur Compton, head of the Chicago laboratory, noted his own doubts: 1. if it didn’t work, it would be prolonging the war, which would cost lives; and 2. “without a military demonstration it may be impossible to impress the world with the need for national sacrifices in order to gain lasting security.” This last line is the more interesting one in my eyes: Compton saw dropping the bomb on a city as a form of “demonstration,” a “military demonstration,” and thought that taking a lot of life now would be necessary to scare the world into banning these weapons in the future. This view, that the bombs were something more than just weapons, butvisual arguments, comes across in AmoonyFashion Womens Buckle Lowheels Cow Leather Assorted Colors Split Toe Sandals Black JuoWYp

Figure 10

Comparison of hallmark GO biological processes identified as significant in the differential expression of tumorigenic verses normal samples by enrichment of the significant genes called by various the methods. Results of GSEA [ 15 , 30 ] analysis are included for comparison. Colored boxes indicate that the GO category is identified as significant with an FDR of 10% (60% for GSEA), and deeper red colors have a smaller mean rank of the gene set, corresponding to more up-regulation of the set, while deeper blue colors have a larger mean rank, corresponding to more down-regulation of the set. The GO categories are sub-categorized corresponding to the six hallmark characteristics of cancer as indicated in the inset box. The seventh category is included to evaluate the significance of the hypoxia GO category.

We have described a new multivariate approach to differential expression which is better able to identify DEG while also addressing the issues associated with the high dimensionality of expression data. The Characteristic Direction approach uses the orientation of the separating hyperplane from a linear classification scheme, linear discriminant analysis, to define a direction which characterizes the differential expression. This results in a simple, highly-regularized characterization which is appropriate for genome-wide expression analysis. We compared the performance of this approach to established univariate approaches, with real and synthetic data. The validation scheme in the context of TF and drug perturbations is in itself valuable for benchmarking both computational and experimental methods. Extracting a large number of control verses perturbation expression datasets from GEO and prioritizing the genes with the various methods, we were able to show that the Characteristic Direction approach prioritizes genes which are associated with the binding sites of the perturbed TF and targets of drugs respectively; and it does so to significantly greater degree than a selection of popular methods. We took advantage of the opportunity to use independent prior knowledge datasets to validate our method. It is established that binding and unbinding of transcription factors to the promoters of genes is, in general, used for gene expression regulation. However, it is also clear that binding to the promoter does not necessarily result in differential expression. This is especially true when considering different cellular contexts. In most cases of our validation scheme the ChIP and array do not come from the same cell lines. However, there is some correlation/overlap between DEG after TF knockdowns and TF putative binding based on ChIP for the same TF in most cases. We do not know the true positives but we know that more overlap is likely due to a more accurate method to identify the DEG. We name this a silver standard for validation as it is not as good as a gold standard but it is good enough to compare DEG calling methods. The fact that we were able to recover genes associated with the binding sites of the perturbed TF is interesting on its own as it reveals a relation between DNA interactions identified by ChIP-Seq experiments and mRNA levels from expression profiling. Similarly, the ability of the method to identify a clear relationship between drug targets and the differential expression of their interactors in a systematic way is also noteworthy because for many drugs we do not know the targeted pathways while differential expression signatures are readily available. For the RNA-Seq validation we used a single study which compares differential binding of a TF, to differential expression, in the context of high-throughput sequencing. We found a stronger apparent relationship between differential binding and differential expression when using the Characteristic Direction approach as compared to the DESeq method. Like all statistical methods, the Characteristic Direction method works best when there are many repeats of the same condition. In principle, the method requires at least two repeats, but at least three repeats are needed for practical applications. The microarray and RNA-seq data used for validation of the method always had at least three repeats for each condition. It is true that in most RNA-seq studies so far investigators do not have that many repeats (1 or 2), but this is likely to change as the cost of such experiments rapidly drops. To make the Characteristic Direction method accessible, we implemented it in Python, R, MATLAB and Mathematica. Readers that are interested in applying the method to their own data should refer to the open source scripts and examples available at: NIKE Womens Free RN Flyknit 2017 Running Shoe Black/Whitevolt bmiOP

Implementations of the method are provided in Python, R, MATLAB, and Mathematica freely available at: .

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